Thursday

LAN Cabling, Standards, and Topologies

computer & technologyThis chapter completes the Ethernet puzzle for this book, in relation to the requirements of the INTRO exam. Ethernet was covered in several other chapters of this book— specifically, Chapter 3, “Data Link Layer Fundamentals: Ethernet LANs,” Chapter 9,“Cisco LAN Switching Basics,” and Chapter 10, “Virtual LANs and Trunking.”
The topics in those chapters laid the foundation of a relatively broad knowledge of Ethernet. However, to keep those chapters flowing and not get bogged down in some long tangents (in some cases, relatively unimportant tangents), those earlier chapters did not cover all the details of Ethernet that might be on the INTRO exam. For those of you studying for the CCNA exam—in other words, the single-exam method of getting your CCNA certification—you are probably following the reading plan outlined in the introduction. For you, after this chapter, you should move on to the first three chapters of CCNA ICND Exam Certification Guide.

Foundation Topics

This chapter begins with a description of different topologies that you might find in different types of networks, including Ethernets, but also including other types of networks. Next, Ethernet standards and cabling options are detailed. Finally, the chapter closes with a brief description of wireless technology and wireless LANs.

Network Topologies

You already have been introduced to several different network topologies as you have read through this book. For instance, 10BASE2 networks use a physical bus topology, whereas 10BASE-T networks use a physical star topology. This section introduces you to several other types of network topologies.
Figure 11-1 shows the different types of Ethernet topologies covered earlier in the book, with some specific terms used to describe the topology for each design.



The figure shows a 10BASE5 network, a 10BASE-T network using a shared hub, and a switch with 10/100 links. Physically, the topologies with the hub and the switch look a little like how a child might draw a star, or the sun, with a center (the hub or switch) and with beams of light pointing outward (like the Ethernet cables to the PCs in the figure). Star topologies also are called hub-and-spoke topologies.
Physical bus topologies transmit the electrical signal from one end of a cable to the other, with the signal being picked up at each connection point.
The term logical topology refers to how the network behaves. For instance, from Chapter 3, you know that a 10BASE-T hub repeats an incoming signal out every other port on the hub.
So, logically, it also causes the electrical signals to be sent to every connection on the network—more like a bus in logic. So, people might describe a network using a hub as a physical star, but a logical bus. The logical topology for the switch network is a star because, unlike a hub, a switch does not repeat the signal out every port, but just to the appropriate device.
Figure 11-2 shows three other types of network topologies, which could be used for interconnecting Ethernet hubs and switches.



The extended star is characterized by parts of the topology that look like a star, which, in turn, are connected in star fashion to some other node. For instance, the three switches with PC attached, taken alone, form a star topology. By connecting to another switch in the middle, another star is formed, so this topology would be characterized as an extended star. Extended star topologies are rare for Ethernets.
If you pursue your CCDA certification, you will come across many designs in which you see the full mesh and partial mesh topologies shown in the figure. A full mesh is typical of switches that collectively form the core and distribution layers of a campus LAN design that includes Layer 3 switching. The partial mesh design often is found between distribution layer and access layer switches. If you want to learn more about LAN design concepts, pick up the CCDA Exam Certification Guide and read more. For our purposes, you should just know that a full mesh means that all the respective nodes in the network have a direct connection. A partial mesh means that some of the nodes in a network have a direct connection, but others do not.
Frame Relay networks often are described as being full mesh or partial mesh. For instance, consider Figure 11-3, with a Frame Relay network.



Frame Relay networks use a physical star topology because each Frame Relay DTE device connects to a central Frame Relay network. However, depending on which sites have VCs connecting them, the logical design is either full mesh or partial mesh. When you study for the ICND exam, you will see many Frame Relay examples with full- and partial-mesh designs. Practically, no one really refers to Frame Relay as using a physical star design, but many people do refer to a Frame Relay design as either full mesh or partial mesh.
Figure 11-4 shows the final topology covered here—the ring topology.



The left-most figure depicts a concept in which each device is cabled to the next, with the signal transmitted in a single direction. By doing so, the signal starts with one device, and eventually, the signal makes it all the way back to the original sender of the data. With one physical path, the topology is called a single ring, and with two physical paths, the topology is called a dual ring.
Dual rings are useful for failover. With dual rings, one ring is used to transmit data under normal operations, with the second ring for failover. If the physical path between two adjacent devices fails, the two devices on either side of the problem simply can loop the signal on one ring onto the other—and another physical loop has been created. This dual-ring topology was used with the now outdated Token Ring and Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) LANs. The same concept is used in optical networking today.

Finally, on the right side of Figure 11-4, you see an example of how Token Ring was cabled— back when anyone cared. Each device had a cable connecting it to a hub, with a transmit wire
and a receive wire inside the cable. The electrical signal was sent down each wire and was repeated back up the wire to the hub; then the hub repeated the process with the next device,and so on. Electrically, a single ring was created, so Token Ring uses a logical ring topology, but physically, it uses a star topology.
Table 11-2 summarizes the types of physical topology covered in this chapter.

Cabling and Connectors

Practically every other Cisco certification exam ignores the topic of cabling; those exams just assume that you can read the manuals and figure out what cables are needed. Interestingly, a well-designed cabling plan, with the right cables, can be a big component of making a LAN more manageable and available. So, cabling is indeed important in real networks.
The cables themselves contain different components inside the cable—you just have to cut one open to look inside to see internal components. Also, each type of cable might allow for a variety of connectors at the end of the cable. So, in this section, you will read about the types of cables, what’s inside them, and what connectors can be used to terminate them.

General Features of Metallic Cabling

The term cable refers to a combination of plastics, metal wires, optical fibers, possibly rubber, and other materials molded into a cord of varying lengths. Well, that’s at least a formal definition. People see cables every day. The power cords that go from the electrical wall socket to each of your electrically powered appliances and lamps at home are all cables. There are cables protruding from the back of your PC. And for networking, the phone cord stretching from the wall outlet to your phone is actually a networking cable.
Most networking cables use either copper wires inside the cable to transfer an electrical signal, or glass fiber inside the cable to transfer optical light signals. So, many people refer to cabling as wiring just because the vast majority of networking cables are actually copper wire cables. The wire cables also sometimes are called copper cabling, just because the most popular metal to use in the cable is copper.
When sending an electrical signal over a cable, the signal introduces a magnetic field and also introduces radio frequency interference. Translation: When the cable is in use, it emits radiation that can interfere with other signals in other wires or signals that pass through the air. When one wire affects another in this manner, it is commonly referred to as crosstalk. So, the various national governments tend to regulate how much of these unwanted physics effects are allowed. These metallic wire cables are designed to reduce the effects of the radiation and interference.
The wires can be affected by outside interference as well. Nearby cables can interfere with the transmission on the cable, actually changing the electrical signal and causing bit errors. So, electrical cables create their own emissions and are susceptible to problems from the emissions from other sources, particularly nearby cables. The most popular way today to reduce the effects of emissions is to transmit over a pair of wires and twist those two wires together. By using an opposite current on each wire, each wire produces an identical magnetic field, but in an opposite direction. It’s sort of like having two equal-power magnets of the same polarity, both trying to pull things toward them. If you put a paper clip between them at equal distances, with equal strength for the magnets, the paper clip should not move. If only one magnet were there, it would attract the paper clip. Essntially, twisting the wires has a similar effect—the two agnetic fields cancel each other out.
Twisted-pair wiring is used in today’s most popular electrical (wire) networking cables. The other popular way to reduce the emissions of copper cabling is to shield the wires. That means that the wires have some material placed around them, using a material that blocks most of the electromagnetic radiation. The concept is similar to when you need to get an xray, and the person taking the x-ray leaves the room or stands behind a screen made of lead— the x-rays (which are a form of electromagnetic raditaion) do not pass through the lead screen. Similarly, by hielding the cables, the cables emit less raditation. Unfortunately, shielding the wires makes the cable more expensive and less flexible. The need to add more materials to a cable to shield the cable increases materials and manufacturing costs for the cables. You need a lot of cables to build a typical enterprise network, so the extra cost does add up. If the cable does not bend easily, you might not be able to run it in tight spaces behind walls, in ceilings, into where the wall plate sits behind the wall, and so on. So, inflexible cabling could require you to open walls in the building to make a new space for the cables to run—costing time and money.

Unshielded Twisted-Pair and Shielded Twisted-Pair Cabling and Connectors

The Telecommunications Information Associatation (TIA) defines standards for LAN cabling. For copper-wire LAN cabling, two main branches have been defined:
• Unshielded twisted pair (UTP)
• Shielded twisted pair (STP)
Figure 11-5 shows a conceptual diagram of each type of cable. The figure shows a side view of each cable and a straight-on view of a UTP cable. All the parts of the figure show the cable cut open so that you can see the internal components of the cables.



The figure shows most of the pertinent details of both types of cables. Working from the outside in, the UTP cable has an outer jacket—its main purpose is to hold all the interior cabling together. Inside, you have some number of twisted pairs of cables. From the lowest part of the figure, looking straight at the end of the cable, you can see that each wire does not simply sit inside the outer jacket—instead, each wire has some colored plastic insulation attached to it. Copper, when spun to such a small diameter, would break very easily without some support. So, the thin plastic insulation provides some strength for each individual wire.
Each wire’s thin plastic insulation also is colored differently, either a solid color or a stripe against a white background. The colors help when making individual cables by cutting a length of cable off a large cable spool and adding connectors, such as an RJ-45 connector, on the end of a cable. Each wire can be identified by the color of the plastic insulation at each end of the cable. Also, each twisted pair uses the same color—one wire with the solid color and one striped.
The STP cable diagram on the right of Figure 11-5 just shows the additional components of an STP cable as compared with an UTP cable. Each pair is covered with insulating material, with another insulator covering all pairs combined. The extra materials cause the relative lack of flexibility in the cable and, of course, add the benefit of less interference.

UTP Standards

The TIA defines several standards for UTP cabling. The UTP cable types are defined in different categories—but no one would really use the term UTP category in normal speech— instead, you would say something like “Are you using CAT5 cables?” Table 11-3 lists the characteristics of the different categories of UTP cable as defined by the TIA

UTP Connectors

UTP cables use Regulated Jack 45 (RJ-45) connectors. Some cables need only two twisted pairs, typically using pairs 2 and 3, as specified by the TIA. Figure 11-6 shows a picture of an RJ-45 connector, with some details of the eight pins on the connector. Figure 11-7 shows the pinouts on a typical four-pair UTP cable using an RJ-45 connector, according to the TIA
specifications.
Table 11-3 UTP Cable Categories/Characterisics UTP



The wiring diagram shows four-pair cabling that uses all eight pins on an RJ-45 connector. Some Ethernet standards require only two pairs and typically use the pair on pins 1 and 2 and the pair on pins 3 and 6.

Coaxial Cabling

Coaxial cabling was used for 10BASE2 and 10BASE5 Ethernet in years past. 10BASE5 was referred to as thicknet, and 10BASE2 was referred to as thinnet because 10BASE5 used thicker coaxial cable. Even 10 years ago, newly installed Ethernet networks most often were not 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 networks, but rather were 10BASE-T. I personally have not seen a 10BASE2 or 10BASE5 Ethernet NIC available for sale from a vendor for at least 5 years. So, the relative importance of remembering the details of coaxial cabling for your job is pretty small.
Coaxial cables are shielded. They have a single copper wire in the center, with plastic insulation and copper shielding surrounding the copper wire.
For 10BASE5, the network consisted of a length of coaxial cable of up to 500 m in length. In fact, the “5” in 10BASE5 represents the maximum length of a single cable segment. To connect to the segment, a vampire tap was used. The vampire tap is a piece of metal in the shape of a cylinder when closed. By closing the tap around the cable, the tap actually pushed through the shielding to let the metal in the vampire tap touch the copper wire inside the cable. I’m sure it is now obvious where the name vampire tap came from! From the vampire tap, a short cable, called an Attachment Unit Interface (AUI) cable, connected the tap to the

Ethernet card on the PC.

Running individual shielded, heavy, relatively inflexible coaxial cable for 500 m for a long 10BASE5 network was, to say the least, a lot of work. For 10BASE2, which was developed after 10BASE5, instead of a single length of cable, the bus was created by a series of cables. 10BASE2 used thinner, more flexible coax cabling as well. The cables used a British Naval Connector (BNC) connector, which was a lot easier to work with than the vampire taps. To connect a computer, a T-connector was used, with one end plugged into the Ethernet card, another into a cable from the upstream cable, and another cable connecting to the next device downstream. Figure 11-8 shows a picture of the BNC connector, and Figure 11-9 shows the typical cabling options for 10BASE2 and 10BASE5.



The one component shown in Figure 11-9 that was not already discussed is the term transceiver. This term was created by melding the terms transmitter and receiver. Instead of having the Ethernet card itself include the electronics that sent and received the signal on the Ethernet cable, the original Ethernet designs used an external device to actually encode the bits. The concept is not terribly different from having an external CSU/DSU on a WAN circuit, as covered in Chapter 4, "Fundamentals of WANs".



For the purposes of networking, coaxial cable has some advantages. It allows for longer network segments—500 m, with longer distances allowed using repeaters. However, the cons of coaxial cabling include the fact that it is more expensive, heavier, larger (takes up more room in conduits), and relatively inflexible. Also, when used for Ethernet, a single break in the cable takes down the entire Ethernet segment! All of these factors add up to some of the reasons that coaxial cabling is not a popular option for network cabling today.

Fiber-Optic Cabling and Connectors for Ethernet

Fiber cabling, also called optical cabling or fiber optics, provides another option for cabling Ethernet. The main differences, in terms of function, between optical cabling for Ethernet and electrical cabling are as follows:
• Longer distances supported by optical cabling
• Greater monetary cost
• Less magnetic interference, making it slightly more secure
• Only type of cabling supported by 10 Gig Ethernet
For instance, network engineers might choose to use optical interfaces and cabling for Ethernet when building a campus LAN when the buildings happen to be a few miles apart because optical cables allow longer cables to be used. If the company has the right of way, it can run optical cable between the sites and still build a campus LAN.
Also, if you want to use Ethernet between two buildings that are a few miles apart but you do not have the right of way, you might be able to lease what is called dark fiber from a service provider. Dark fiber is just optical cabling run by the service provider, which it can do because it owns the right to run the cable under the streets. The service provider typically runs a lot of different optical fibers and then just leases to you the number of optical fibersyou need.
In other cases, you might choose to use optical cabling to help protect highly sensitive traffic. Because of the emissions coming from electrical cabling, with the right tools, you actually can tell what signals are being sent across a cable. So, when an Ethernet cable might become accessible to someone who wants to listen in, the use of optical cabling can thrwart that person’s efforts, because unlike electrical cabling, optical cabling does not emit electromagnetic radiation.
The key component of optical cabling is the fiberglass center of the cable. The devices on the end of the cable, such as Ethernet switches, generate an optical light signal. The signal travels
down the optical fiber in the center of the cable. No electricity is used across the cable—just light is used.
Optical cabling can be divided into two general categories:
o Multimode (MM)
o Single-mode (SM)

SM fiber uses a very small-diameter optical fiber, with MM fiber using a larger size. SM cables require more precision in the manufacturing process and more precision by the hardware that generates the light that crosses the cable, so SM cables and cards tend to be more expensive. However, SM cables typically allow for much longer distances and data rate than does MM fiber. MM cable still allows longer distances than copper cabling.
Often Ethernet cards use light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to generate light for MM cable, and other more expensive interfaces use a laser to generate the light for SM cables. The LEDs actually generate more than one wavelength of light, which, in part, is where the name multimode comes from. The actual terms multimode and single-mode refer to the fact that LEDs generate multiple wavelengths of light, whereas lasers generate a single specific wavelength.
Figure 11-10 shows a side view of an optical cable, including a view of the optical fiber itself.



Yes, the center of the cable is made from glass, so it is fragile—but it is sturdy enough to work with the cable without worrying every second that you will break it. First, it is fiberglass, which does not break as easily as the glass in the windows of your house. The plastic adds some strength to the fiberglass. Most important for strength, a Kevlar coating is applied— Kevlar is the stuff that most bullet-proof vests are made from today.
The right side of the figure shows an example of how the light signal actually bounces off the interior walls of the glass fiber. The fiber has an inner part, called the core, and an outer part, called the cladding. The cladding has a different refractive index than the core, meaning that when the light hits the outer wall of the core, which is also the inner wall of the cladding, the light is reflected back into the core. This might be a bit oversimplified, but it’s like having a mirror on the inside wall of the cladding so that the light keeps getting reflected back into the core—the light eventaully makes it to the other end of the cable.

Optical Connectors for Ethernet

To transmit data over a fiber cable, you need a single strand of fiber. The term strand refers to the center of the cable, the glass part, as shown in Figure 11-10. To transmit data in both directions, you need a pair of strands—one for each direction of data transmission. However, because there are no emissions to speak of, there is no need to twist the strands together. So, to connect two devices using fiber cabling, you just need two strands, or fibers, and the correct connector on each end. A variety of connectors can be used for terminating optical cable when used for Ethernet. One type, called an ST connector, terminates each fiber strand with a barrel connector, much like a BNC connector. You place the connector onto a cylindrical male connector on the Ethernet interface (typically a switch) and twist to make the connector secure. Figure 11-11 shows another type of connector, called an SC connector.



The figure shows two cables, each of which has a single fiber strand inside, attaching into a single connctor. Upon close examination, you can see that each strand terminates into a piece of plastic, with a larger, rectangular piece of plastic holding the two together. The larger piece of plastic holds the two internal connectors the the same distance from each other as the two receptacles on a card on a switch so that you can plug the whole connector into an Ethernet port at the same time. So, you have either both fibers connected or neither.
A newer type of connector, called an MT-RJ connector, has become more popular in recent years. The MT-RJ connector uses the same plastic mold as an RJ-45 connector, which makes it easy to install. Two fibers connect into the single connector, similar in concept to an SC connector.
Figure 11-12 shows an MT-RJ connector.



Optical cabling costs more than copper cabling, and the Ethernet cards that can use optical cabling also cost more. However, there are several advantages to using optical cabling for Ethernet. You can have Ethernet segments that stretch over 10 km in length and have Ethernet speeds up to 10 Gbps, with little conduit space consumed due to the small diameter of the cable. Also, fiber cabling is more secure than copper wiring, because of the absence of emissions.

Summary: Ethernet Cabling

Ethernet networks can be built with a variety of cabling types, as covered in this chapter. Table 11-4 summarizes the types of cable and main features, with some comments about disadvantages and advantages of each. Ethernet Standards
Back in Chapter 3, this book introduced you to the most important Ethernet standards. Those included the IEEE 802.3 standard, including the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer, which defines the 6-byte Ethernet addresses. Ethernet also uses IEEE 802.2, which defines a sublayer called Logical Link Control (LLC). 802.2 includes the DSAP field, which identifies the type of packet held in an Ethernet frame. Also in that chapter, you learned the main IEEE standards for Fast Ethernet (802.3u) and Gigabit Ethernet (802.3z and 802.3ab). This short section describes several other thernet standards and summarizes all the salient points of the various Ethernet standards.

Ethernet Framing

All types of Ethernet use either the IEEE-defined framing or the older Ethernet Version 2 framing that predated the standardization of Ethernet by the IEEE. With 802.3 Ethernet, there are two main variations of framing—one without the use of a SNAP header and one with the use of a SNAP header. Figure 11-13 shows the three variations of headers.



One of Ethernet’s greatest strengths is that each newly defined Ethernet standard has used the same MAC and LLC headers and trailers, including the same address formats. So, when a new type of Ethernet is developed, engineers have very little new information to learn before supporting the new type.

Ethernet Cabling Standards

Each IEEE Ethernet standard defines the details for supporting a particular speed over a particular type of cabling. Also, each of these definitions specifies the maximum cable length and the required features of the cabling. Tables 11-5, 11-6, and 11-7 list the pertinent details of the standards, and the cabling.

10-Gigabit Ethernet

Tens years ago, compared to when I was writing this chapter in April 2003, Ethernet technology was just getting to the point that 10BASE-T networks were becoming common. Those networks shared 10 Mbps between all devices. On the horizon at that time was the promise of Ethernet switching, with which you could actually have 10 Mbps on each port of the switch.
Ethernet has gone from being one of many competing LAN technologies, with several competitors, to the king of the LAN in 10 years. With “10 Gig E,” as it is commonly called, Ethernet has increased its speed a thousandfold in 10 years and has won the war in terms of LAN technologies. Just as the last 10 years have seen the emergence of TCP/IP as the most prolific
Layer 3 protocol, Ethernet has become the most prolific Layer 1 and Layer 2 LAN standard. 10 Gig Ethernet, defined in IEEE 802.3ae, runs at 10 Gbps—it would be poorly named if not!
It uses the same 802.3 MAC and 802.2 LLC as the other types of Ethernet. But it does have some differences with the other types:
• It allows only a point-to-point topology because it is intended for connectivity between switching devices.
• It allows only full-duplex communication.
• It specifies only optical fiber—no copper cabling. (Support for copper wiring might be added later.)
It will be a while before 10 Gig E becomes a cost-effective alternative for the wiring closet, but it is becoming a part of high-speed core enterprise networks already. Also, 10 Gig E has some very interesting applications for service providers as a trunking mechanism between switching locations. And with support for 10 Gig E using SM fiber for up to 40 km, 10 Gig E might help Ethernet continue its movement from a LAN technology into the WAN arena.

Wireless Communications

Wireless LANs enable users to communicate without any cabling. However, devices on these wireless LANs need to communicate with the devices on the “wired LANs,” so this seemed like an appropriate place to cover the basics of wireless LANs. Wireless communication happens all around us—literally. Cordless phones are relatively common, with commmunications between the phone and the base unit happening using radio waves. Similarly, mobile phones use radio waves to communicate to a transmitter and receiver on a cell tower nearby. Your TV remote control even performs some basic wireless communication using infrared waves.
Wireless communication uses some form of electromagnetic energy that passes through space. The energy propagates through the air at varying wavelengths. Depending on the wavelength of the energy, the energy might be visible or not. Given the large number of applications for wireless in the world, different wavelengths of energy are given different names, such as infrared for one range, radio frequency for another, and so on.
Electromagnetic energy actually can pass through matter, but often the matter reflects the energy to some degree and absorbs part of the energy as well. Some wavelengths require a line-of-sight for communication to happen because the wavelengths do not pass through matter well. For instance, a TV remote control using infrared typically requires a line-ofsight. Others, such as the wavelengths used for your cell phone, do not require line-of-sight but are affected to some degree by the number, thickness, and materials in the obstructions the phone and the cell tower. Many of you have probably walked around a building trying to find a place with good reception for your mobile phone—the problems are caused in part to the building absorbing and reflecting some of the energy.
Wireless LANs have become hugely popular in companies as well as in the home. The beauty of all wireless communication, including wireless LANs, is the lack of wires. No cables are required, and there’s no need to open up walls, get a ladder to get up in the ceiling, or pay $100 plus per cable to get new cables run. The downsides relate to the speeds (generally less than those of wired LANs today), security risks (anyone nearby can attempt to eavesdrop), and the extra engineering effort to make sure you have enough coverage in the area in which you allow people to roam with their wireless devices.

IEEE 802.11 Wireless LANs

The most popular type of wireless LAN today is based on the IEEE 802.11 standard, which is known informally as Wi-Fi. The 802.11 specification defines what happens on the wireless network to let two or more devices send and receive data.
Wireless LAN communication is really a shared LAN because only one station effectively can transmit at one time, at least in a particular constrained geography. 802.11 signals effectively might reach another device as far as 300 feet away. So, you can have lots of people around the planet using the airwaves for 802.11 at any one point in time, but only one device can send at a time when within range of the wireless signals.
Wireless LANs typically include one or more computers that have a wireless 802.11 LAN card, plus one or more wireless access points (APs). Access points bridge or route traffic from the wireless LAN to the “wired” LAN and vice versa. Figure 11-14 depicts the general idea.



The AP shows two antennae protruding from the corners—indeed, a component of wireless communications is the antennae used to receive and transmit wireless radio signals. The two PCs at the top of the figure also have antennae, typically connected to the end of the 802.11 LAN card and protruding out from the PC.
Note that 802.11 calls for the use of IEEE 802.2 LLC, as well as the same format of addresses defined in 802.3. 802.11 does use a different MAC header than 802.3, however. So, to bridge the traffic, the access point simply swaps an 802.11 header for an 802.3 header, and vice versa, using the same MAC addresses. Some wireless APs route traffic from the wireless network to the wired network.
802.11 includes several standards. 802.11b transmits at 11 Mbps using the 2.4 GHz frequency band, but it is shared, with the maximum throughput capped at about 7 Mbps. 802.11a, which runs in the 5 Ghz frequency band, now can run at speeds up to 54 Mbps, as can 802.11g, which uses the 2.4 Ghz band, like 802.11b. When this book was published, there was still debate in the industry as to which of the higher-speed wireless standards would emerge as the more popular technology in the marketplace.

Foundation Summary

The “Foundation Summary” section of each chapter lists the most important facts from the chapter. Although this section does not list every fact from the chapter that will be on your CCNA exam, a well-prepared CCNA candidate should know, at a minimum, all the details in each “Foundation Summary” section before going to take the exam.
Table 11-8 summarizes the type of physical topology covered in this chapter.



Figure 11-15 shows a conceptual diagram of UTP and STP cabling.



Table 11-9 outlines the types of UTP cabling.



Figure 11-16 shows the pinouts on a typical four-pair UTP cable using an RJ-45 connector.



Figure 11-17 shows a side view of an optical cable, including a view of the optical fiber itself.



Table 11-10 summarizes the types of cable and main features, with some comments about disadvantages and advantages of each.



Tables 11-11, 11-12, and 11-13 list the pertinent details of the standards and the cabling.




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Quiz3: Data Link Layer Fundamentals: Ethernet LANs

1) (1 marks)
Which part of an optical cable reflects the light back into the cable as a result of a different refractive index?
Cladding
Core
Jacket
Plastic shield
Kevlar shield
Leave blank

2) (1 marks)
Which pins typically are used on an RJ-45 connector by an Ethernet card to support Fast Ethernet over UTP cabling?
1, 2, 3, 4
1, 2, 4, 5
1, 2, 3, 6
1, 2, 7, 8
5, 6, 7, 8
Leave blank

3) (1 marks)
Which of the following UTP cable types support Gigabit Ethernet?
CAT3
CAT4
CAT5
CAT5E
CAT6
Leave blank

4) (1 marks)
Which of the following Ethernet standards refer to Gigabit Ethernet?
802.3u
802.3z
802.3ab
802.3ae
All of the above
Leave blank

5) (1 marks)
Which of the following IEEE standards define framing used when transmitting wireless LAN traffic?
IEEE 802.2
IEEE 802.3
IEEE 802.1d
IEEE 802.11
None of the above
Leave blank



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